Assessing the commercial use of CO2 from natural sources in Turkey

Published: 06/07/2016

Geothermal sources in Turkey are characterised by a relatively high and continuous CO2 release, which results in high carbon intensity of the energy produced in geothermal power plants. To reduce the direct CO2 emissions from this geothermal capacity and reduce the climate impact, options to apply the CO2 in a useful way and store the CO2 temporarily or permanently were assessed. This study provides an overview of international experiences in the commercial use of CO2 presenting a range of technologies with varying stages of maturity, economic potentials and global demand. It also explores options for the commercial use of COthat are most suitable to the Turkish context, with a specific focus on enhanced oil recovery, urea yield boosting and greenhouses.

The study shows that prefeasibility assessments for both urea production and greenhouses were positive. CO2 may be applied usefully either to enhance urea production (if a new facility could be realised close to existing geothermal capacity) or in greenhouses. The use of COfrom geothermal power plants (GPPs) for these purposes would lead to efficiency improvements (in the case of urea yield boosting) or may avoid fossil fuel combustion to produce CO2 (as in greenhouses).