Demand Response in the US
Smart End-Use Energy Storage and Integration of Renewable Energy Project
By the end of 2012 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) had more than 5,000 MW of wind generation connected within its balancing area. In the coming years, an additional 2,000-4,000 MW are expected to be added. BPA studies suggest that the Federal Columbia River Power System that it oversees may not be able to provide cost-effective balancing reserves into the future at this anticipated level of wind generation. This project supported BPA in finding new cost-effective demand-side sources of flexibility. The project involved development and demonstration of responsive thermal end-use technologies with inherent energy storage capabilities. The technologies enable novel demand response strategies, including system balancing and services that reduce the need for BPA to hold high night-time reserves. Taken together, these measures enhance hydro system operation and improve transmission & distribution efficiency.
The project managed the procurement and implementation of approximately 1.5 MW of responsive load in the service territories of seven consumer owned utilities. The controllable end-use loads included water heaters and space heaters with electric thermal storage installed at residential and small commercial sites, commercial building HVAC controls, and freezers/chillers in cold storage warehouses at industrial sites. Another important product of the work was a tool for retail utilities to perform an economic analysis of potential DR opportunities to establish a business case for their management.